Cognitive Behavioural Therapy CBT

Talking Therapies
Talking therapies are psychological treatments for mental and emotional problems like stress, anxiety and depression.
There are many different types of talking therapy, but they all involve working with a trained therapist and qualified therapist. The therapist helps you find answers to the problems you’re having.
For some problems and conditions, one type of talking therapy may be better than another.
Different talking therapies also suit different people, we like to have a chat with you to make sure we can arrange the right type of therapist to work with the the problem tour presenting.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
The aim of CBT is to help you explore and change how you think about your life, and free yourself from unhelpful patterns of behaviour.
You set goals with your therapist and may carry out tasks between sessions.
A course usually involves around 12 to 20 sessions.

CBT has been shown to work for a variety of mental health problems, including:
• depression
• anxiety
• panic attacks
• phobias
• obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
• post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
• some eating disorders, especially bulimia

Parks Inner Child Therapy
Penny Parks – Author of Rescuing the Inner Child and Counsellor Guide to Inner Child Therapy.
What is Parks Inner Child Therapy?
Parks Inner Child Therapy (PICT) is a powerful and versatile visualisation-based therapy model. It is an evolving, cognitive form of therapy, with a foundation in basic Transactional Analysis, that incorporates Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) to aid rapid positive change. Although PICT was originally created to specifically help people recover from the trauma and damage of sexual, physical and emotional abuse during childhood (such harm may have been caused deliberately, caused by neglect, or by inadequate parenting which was not intentional), PICT is equally effective for a wide range of emotional problems. Such as: eating disorders, OCD, DID, self harm, ritual abuse, anxiety or depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, phobias, working with abusers, grief and loss issues (including murder, suicide, abortion, miscarriage, still birth, loss of job, material things or pets). PICT therapists also have the skills to assist with Critical Incident Debriefing (witnessing/experiencing highly traumatic events).

PICT is a directional model following a flexible structure adapted to the client’s individual needs. PICT is designed to assist people who have completed the ‘unloading’ process (the initial talking through of past events) to move into the process of deep and lasting change work, or can either facilitate the unloading process and then move on to change work, or accept clients who have already completed the unloading with prior counselling and are now ready for change work.

Counselling is a talking therapy where you talk in confidence to a counsellor. They help you find ways to deal with difficulties in your life. Counselling for depression has been specially developed to help people understand the underlying causes of their depression. Usually in an empathic way reflecting the feelings of the client.

Behavioural Activation
Behavioural activation is a talking therapy that aims to help people with depression take simple, practical steps towards enjoying life again.
It may be offered one-to-one or in a group with regular meetings or phone calls with a therapist.
The aim is to give you the motivation to make small, positive changes in your life.
You’ll also learn problem-solving skills to help you tackle problems that are affecting your mood.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)
Mindfulness-based therapies help you focus on your thoughts and feelings as they happen moment by moment.
They can be used to help treat depression and addiction. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) combines mindfulness techniques like meditation and breathing exercises with cognitive therapy. MBCT is one of the options that may be offered to you after a course of treatment for depression to help stop it coming back.

How does CBT work?
Cognitive behavioural therapy, or CBT, is a short-term therapy technique that can help people find new ways to behave by changing their thought patterns.
Engaging with CBT can help people reduce stress, cope with complicated relationships, deal with grief, and face many other common life challenges.
CBT works on the basis that the way we think and interpret life’s events affects how we behave and, ultimately, how we feel. Studies have shown that it is useful in many situations. More specifically, CBT is a problem-specific, goal-oriented approach that needs the individual’s active involvement to succeed. It focuses on their present-day challenges, thoughts, and behaviors.

Read on to find out more about what CBT involves and how it can help.
CBT is a form of psychotherapy that focuses on how a person’s thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes affect their feelings and behaviors.
CBT is based on a number of beliefs, including the following:
• Unhelpful ways that people think can lead to psychological problems.
• If people learn unhelpful behavior, this, too, can lead to psychological issues.
• People can learn more beneficial ways of thinking and behaving.
• New habits can relieve symptoms of mental and physical conditions and allow people to act in better ways.
Practitioners base CBT on the theory that problems arise from the meanings people give to events, as well as the events themselves. Unhelpful thoughts can make it difficult for a person to function confidently in different situations. CBT can have a positive impact on how people feel and act and equip them with coping strategies that help them deal with challenges.
Research shows that CBT can offer support to people with depression, panic disorder, and various other health conditions. There is also growing evidence that it can help to relieve chronic pain.
CBT is a broad concept. Different types of CBT focus on various aspects of life. Some types address specific problems, for example, emotional or social challenges.

What can you learn?
During a course of CBT, a person can learn to:
• identify problems more clearly
• develop an awareness of automatic thoughts
• challenge underlying assumptions that may be wrong
• distinguish between facts and irrational thoughts
• understand how past experience can affect present
feelings and beliefs
• stop fearing the worst
• see a situation from a different perspective
• better understand other people’s actions and
• develop a more positive way of thinking and seeing
• become more aware of their own mood
• establish attainable goals
• avoid generalizations and all-or-nothing thinking
• stop taking the blame for everything
• focus on how things are rather than how they think they
should be
• face their fears rather than avoid them
• describe, accept, and understand rather than judge themselves or others
• frequent feedback
• role-playing activities
• ways to calm the mind and body
• gradually increasing exposure to things that cause fear
• homework assignments
• keeping a cognitive behavioral diary• practicing the skills learned to promote positive behavioral change and growth
What can it treat?
Therapists created the first CBT models around 50 years ago to treat depression. There are now models for treating a wide range of conditions, including:
• panic disorder
• post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
• generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
• insomnia
• social phobia
• childhood depression
• anger
• marital conflict
• substance abuse and addiction
• borderline personality
• dental phobia
• eating disorders
• many other mental and physical conditions
Research has shown that CBT can reduce symptoms of health conditions than some other treatments are unable to relieve.
How does it work?

Some forms of psychotherapy focus on looking into the past to gain an understanding of current feelings. In contrast, CBT focuses on present thoughts and beliefs.
CBT can help people with many problems where thoughts and beliefs are critical. It emphasises the need to identify, challenge, and change how a person views a situation. According to CBT, people’s pattern of thinking is like wearing a pair of glasses that makes us see the world in a specific way. CBT makes us more aware of how these thought patterns create our reality and determine how we behave.
Changing distortions and perceptions
CBT aims to transform any ways of thinking and behaving that stand in the way of positive outcomes. For example, when a person has depression, their perceptions and interpretations become distorted.
A distorted view can make someone more susceptible to:
• a negative mindset
• jumping to conclusions
• mistakenly seeing situations as catastrophic
• seeing things as either good or bad with nothing in between
If people learn fearful or negative ways of thinking, they can start to think in this way automatically. CBT focuses on challenging these automatic thoughts and comparing them with reality.
If a person can change their way of thinking, their distress decreases and they can function in a way that is more likely to benefit them and those around them.
As the individual acquires new skills, it becomes easier for them to solve problems in a constructive way. This can reduce stress, help them to feel more in control, and reduce the risk of a negative mood.
An example: Dental phobia
A person with dental phobia, for example, fears going to the
dentist because they believe they will experience severe pain or even death by having a dental procedure. This fear may have started with a previous negative experience, perhaps in childhood.
A CBT therapist can work with the person to address the faulty thinking which says “Because I had pain with a filling, all dental visits will be painful.”
Together, the client and the therapist can develop a plan to see dental treatment in a new way and overcome the fear.